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compressors handbook 压缩机手册英文版.pdf 方方面面很详细 推荐

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发表于 2012-12-3 17:15:34 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
PREFACE
Compressors fall into that category of machinery that is ‘‘all around us’’ but of
which we are little aware. We find them in our homes and workplaces, and in
almost any form of transportation we might use. Compressors serve in refrigeration,
engines, chemical processes, gas transmission, manufacturing, and in just about
every place where there is a need to move or compress gas.
The many engineering disciplines (e.g. fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, tribology,
and stress analysis) involved in designing and manufacturing compressors
make it impossible to do much more than just ‘‘hit the high spots,’’ at least in this
first edition.
This is such a truly broad field, encompassing so many types and sizes of units,
that it is difficult to cover it all in one small volume, representing the work of
relatively few authors. Possibly, more than anything else, it will open the door to
what must follow—a larger second edition.
In compressors, the areas of greatest concern are those parts with a finite life,
such as bearings, seals and valves, or parts that are highly stressed. Treatment of
these components takes up a large portion of the handbook, but at the same time
space has been given to theory, applications and to some of the different types of
compressors.
Much in this handbook is based on empirical principals, so this should serve as
a practical guide for designers and manufacturers. There are also test and analysis
procedures that all readers will find helpful. There should be something here for
anyone who has an interest in compressors.
Paul C. Hanlon
ABOUT THE EDITOR
Paul C. Hanlon is manager of product design with C. Lee Cook in Louisville,
Kentucky. A mechanical engineering graduate of the University of Cincinnati, he
has worked for over 40 years in the design, application, and troubleshooting of seals
for engines, compressors, and other major equipment used throughout the chemical,
oil, and gas-processing industries. Mr. Hanlon is also the author of numerous articles
for leading technical journals.
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation. v
Contents
Contributors ...................................................................................................... vii
Preface ............................................................................................................. ix
About the Editor ................................................................................................ x
1. Compressor Theory ................................................................................. 1.1
1.1 Nomenclature .................................................................................................. 1.1
1.2 Theory .............................................................................................................. 1.2
1.3 References ...................................................................................................... 1.15
2. Compressor Performance – Positive Displacement ............................. 2.1
2.1 Compressor Performance ............................................................................... 2.1
2.2 Reciprocating Compressors ............................................................................ 2.12
2.3 Screw Compressors ........................................................................................ 2.23
2.4 All Compressors .............................................................................................. 2.25
3. Compressor Performance – Dynamic .................................................... 3.1
3.1 General Description of a Centrifugal Compressor .......................................... 3.2
3.2 Centrifugal Compressors Types ...................................................................... 3.7
3.3 Basic Theoretical Aspects ............................................................................... 3.12
3.4 Performance of Compressor Stages ............................................................... 3.20
3.5 Multistage Compressors .................................................................................. 3.29
3.6 Thermodynamic and Fluid-dynamic Analysis of Stages ................................. 3.36
3.7 Thermodynamic Performances Test of Centrifugal Compressors
Stages .............................................................................................................. 3.45
3.8 Mechanical Tests ............................................................................................. 3.47
3.9 Rotor Dynamics and Design Criteria ............................................................... 3.50
vi Contents
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
3.10 Structural and Manufacturing Characteristics of Centrifugal
Compressors ................................................................................................... 3.58
3.11 Industrial Application of Centrifugal Compressors .......................................... 3.71
3.12 Antisurge Protection System ........................................................................... 3.82
3.13 Adaptation of the Antisurge Law to Multistage Compressors ......................... 3.87
3.14 Antisurge Laws for Special Applications ......................................................... 3.92
4. Centrifugal Compressors – Construction and Testing ........................ 4.1
4.1 Casing Configuration ....................................................................................... 4.1
4.2 Construction Features ..................................................................................... 4.1
4.3 Performance Characteristics ........................................................................... 4.16
4.4 Off-design Operation ....................................................................................... 4.25
4.5 Rotor Dynamics ............................................................................................... 4.27
4.6 Rotor Balancing ............................................................................................... 4.28
4.7 High Speed Balance ........................................................................................ 4.29
4.8 Rotor Stability .................................................................................................. 4.31
4.9 Avoiding Surge ................................................................................................ 4.43
4.10 Surge Identification .......................................................................................... 4.46
4.11 Liquids .............................................................................................................. 4.48
4.12 Field Analysis of Compressor Performance ................................................... 4.49
4.13 Gas Sampling .................................................................................................. 4.49
4.14 Instrumentation ................................................................................................ 4.50
4.15 Instrument Calibration ..................................................................................... 4.52
4.16 Iso-cooled Compressors ................................................................................. 4.54
4.17 Compressors with Economizer Nozzles ......................................................... 4.55
4.18 Estimating Internal Temperatures ................................................................... 4.57
4.19 Field Data Analysis .......................................................................................... 4.62
4.20 Trouble Shooting Compressor Performance .................................................. 4.63
4.21 Reference ........................................................................................................ 4.74
5. Compressor Analysis .............................................................................. 5.1
5.1 Compressor Valve Failures and Leaking Valves ............................................ 5.1
5.2 Compressor Piston Ring Failures ................................................................... 5.2
5.3 Restriction Losses ........................................................................................... 5.2
Contents vii
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
5.4 Improper Cylinder Loading .............................................................................. 5.2
5.5 Required Information ....................................................................................... 5.2
5.6 Analysis of the Compressor Using a Pressure-volume (PV) Diagram ........... 5.3
5.7 Compressor Pressure/Time (PT) Patterns ...................................................... 5.11
5.8 Compressor Vibration Analysis ....................................................................... 5.19
5.9 Abnormal Vibration/Ultrasonic Traces ............................................................ 5.23
5.10 Systematic Compressor Analysis .................................................................... 5.28
6. Compressor and Piping System Simulation ......................................... 6.1
6.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 6.1
6.2 General Modeling Concepts ............................................................................ 6.2
6.3 Predicting Pulsations, Vibrations, and Stress ................................................. 6.3
6.4 Reciprocating Compressor Pressure Volume Analysis .................................. 6.9
6.5 Valve Motion Models ....................................................................................... 6.10
6.6 Thermal Flexibility Models ............................................................................... 6.12
6.7 References ...................................................................................................... 6.15
7. Very High Pressure Compressors (over 100 MPa [14500 psi]) ............ 7.1
7.1 Design Procedure ............................................................................................ 7.1
7.2 Stress Considerations ..................................................................................... 7.13
7.3 Packing and Cylinder Construction ................................................................. 7.35
7.4 Bibliography ..................................................................................................... 7.47
8. CNG Compressors ................................................................................... 8.1
8.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 8.1
8.2 CNG Compressor Design ................................................................................ 8.1
8.3 CNG Station Equipment .................................................................................. 8.8
8.4 CNG Station System Designs ......................................................................... 8.14
8.5 Equipment Selection and System Performance ............................................. 8.17
8.6 Codes and Standards ...................................................................................... 8.18
9. Liquid Transfer/Vapor Recovery ............................................................ 9.1
9.1 Transfer Using a Liquid Pump ......................................................................... 9.1
9.2 Air Padding ...................................................................................................... 9.2
viii Contents
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
9.3 Transfer Using a Gas Compressor ................................................................. 9.4
9.4 Combination Compressor/Pump Systems ...................................................... 9.6
9.5 Compressors for Liquid Transfer/Vapor Recovery ......................................... 9.6
10. Compressed Natural Gas for Vehicle Fueling ....................................... 10.1
10.1 Refueling Appliance ......................................................................................... 10.1
10.2 Compressor ..................................................................................................... 10.6
10.3 Compressor Balance ....................................................................................... 10.11
10.4 Compressor Components ............................................................................... 10.13
10.5 Natural Gas as Fuel ......................................................................................... 10.14
11. Gas Boosters ........................................................................................... 11.1
11.1 Applications ..................................................................................................... 11.1
11.2 Construction and Operation ............................................................................ 11.2
12. Scroll Compressors ................................................................................. 12.1
12.1 Principal of Operation ...................................................................................... 12.2
12.2 Advantages ...................................................................................................... 12.3
12.3 Limitations ........................................................................................................ 12.4
12.4 Construction ..................................................................................................... 12.4
12.5 Applications ..................................................................................................... 12.7
13. Straight Lobe Compressors .................................................................... 13.1
13.1 Applications ..................................................................................................... 13.1
13.2 Operating Principle .......................................................................................... 13.1
13.3 Pulsation Characteristics ................................................................................. 13.2
13.4 Noise Characteristics ....................................................................................... 13.2
13.5 Torque Characteristics .................................................................................... 13.3
13.6 Construction (Fig. 13.2) ................................................................................... 13.3
13.7 Staging ............................................................................................................. 13.7
13.8 Installation ........................................................................................................ 13.8
14. The Oil-flooded Rotary Screw Compressor ........................................... 14.1
14.1 Types of Compressors (See Fig. 14.2) ........................................................... 14.1
14.2 Helical Rotors .................................................................................................. 14.3
Contents ix
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
14.3 Advantages of the Rotary Screw Compressor ................................................ 14.5
14.4 Applications for the Rotary Screw Compressor .............................................. 14.6
14.5 Vapor Recovery ............................................................................................... 14.6
14.6 Sizing a Rotary Screw Compressor ................................................................ 14.7
15. Diaphragm Compressors ........................................................................ 15.1
15.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 15.1
15.2 Theory of Operation ......................................................................................... 15.1
15.3 Design .............................................................................................................. 15.4
15.4 Materials of Construction ................................................................................. 15.9
15.5 Accessories ..................................................................................................... 15.10
15.6 Cleaning and Testing ....................................................................................... 15.11
15.7 Applications ..................................................................................................... 15.11
15.8 Limitations ........................................................................................................ 15.12
15.9 Installation and Maintenance ........................................................................... 15.13
15.10 Specifying a Diaphragm Compressor ............................................................. 15.14
16. Rotary Compressor Seals ....................................................................... 16.1
16.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 16.1
16.2 Types of Seals ................................................................................................. 16.3
16.3 Further Reading ............................................................................................... 16.14
17. Reciprocating Compressor Sealing ....................................................... 17.1
17.1 Compressor Packing ....................................................................................... 17.1
17.2 Breaker Rings .................................................................................................. 17.4
17.3 Packing Ring Type BT ..................................................................................... 17.5
17.4 Packing Ring Type BD .................................................................................... 17.6
17.5 Common Packing Ring Characteristics .......................................................... 17.6
17.6 Packing Ring Materials .................................................................................... 17.7
17.7 Lubricated, Semilubricated and Nonlubricated Packing ................................. 17.8
17.8 Packing Ring Type TU .................................................................................... 17.10
17.9 Thermal Effects ................................................................................................ 17.10
17.10 Undersized Rods ............................................................................................. 17.11
17.11 Oversized Rods ............................................................................................... 17.11
x Contents
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
17.12 Tapered Rods .................................................................................................. 17.12
17.13 Packing Leakage ............................................................................................. 17.13
17.14 Ring Leakage at Low Pressure ....................................................................... 17.14
17.15 Problems Associated with Low Suction Pressure ........................................... 17.16
17.16 Problems Associated with Low Leakage Requirements ................................ 17.17
17.17 Effect of Ring Type on Leakage Control ......................................................... 17.18
17.18 Leakage Control with Distance Piece Venting ................................................ 17.18
17.19 Static Compressor Sealing .............................................................................. 17.20
17.20 Compressor Barrier Fluid Systems for Fugitive Emissions Control ............... 17.20
17.21 Wiper Packing .................................................................................................. 17.22
17.22 High Pressure (Hyper) Packings ..................................................................... 17.23
17.23 Compressor Piston Rings ................................................................................ 17.24
17.24 Compressor Rider Rings ................................................................................. 17.25
17.25 Piston Ring Leakage ....................................................................................... 17.26
17.26 Compressor Ring Materials ............................................................................. 17.28
17.27 Seal Ring Friction ............................................................................................ 17.29
17.28 Cooling Reciprocating Compressor Packing .................................................. 17.30
18. Compressor Lubrication ......................................................................... 18.1
18.1 Rotary Screw Compressors ............................................................................ 18.1
18.2 Reciprocating Compressor Crankcase ........................................................... 18.2
18.3 Compressor Cylinders ..................................................................................... 18.2
18.4 Lube Oil Selection ........................................................................................... 18.3
18.5 Oil Additives ..................................................................................................... 18.5
18.6 Optimum Lubrication ....................................................................................... 18.7
18.7 Oil Removal ..................................................................................................... 18.7
18.8 Non-lube (NL) Compressors ........................................................................... 18.9
18.9 Synthetic Lubricants ........................................................................................ 18.9
18.10 Compressor Lubrication Equipment ................................................................ 18.10
19. Principles of Bearing Design .................................................................. 19.1
19.1 Nomenclature .................................................................................................. 19.1
19.2 Compressors and Their Bearings ................................................................... 19.4
19.3 General Bearing Principles .............................................................................. 19.9
Contents xi
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
19.4 Conventional Bearings .................................................................................... 19.24
19.5 Low-speed Bearings ........................................................................................ 19.56
19.6 High-speed and High-temperature Bearings .................................................. 19.62
19.7 Cryogenic Applications .................................................................................... 19.104
19.8 Lubricants and Materials ................................................................................. 19.121
19.9 Design Considerations .................................................................................... 19.128
19.10 References ...................................................................................................... 19.151
20. Compressor Valves ................................................................................. 20.1
20.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................ 20.1
20.2 History .............................................................................................................. 20.1
20.3 Survey of Valve Design ................................................................................... 20.2
20.4 Theory .............................................................................................................. 20.9
20.5 Valve Materials ................................................................................................ 20.19
20.6 Valve Life ......................................................................................................... 20.20
20.7 Methods to Vary the Capacity of a Compressor ............................................. 20.21
20.8 References ...................................................................................................... 20.28
21. Compressor Control Systems ................................................................ 21.1
21.1 Controls – Definitions ...................................................................................... 21.1
21.2 Reciprocating Compressor Monitoring ............................................................ 21.1
21.3 System Considerations ................................................................................... 21.2
21.4 System Selection – Define the Scope ............................................................. 21.3
21.5 Human Factors ................................................................................................ 21.3
21.6 Electrical and Electronic Controls ................................................................... 21.4
21.7 Pneumatic Controls ......................................................................................... 21.10
21.8 Manual Controls ............................................................................................... 21.11
21.9 Prelube-post Lube System .............................................................................. 21.12
21.10 Loading-unloading ........................................................................................... 21.12
21.11 Capacity Control .............................................................................................. 21.12
21.12 Loading and Unloading ................................................................................... 21.13
21.13 Sensor Classification – (Alarm Classes) ......................................................... 21.16
21.14 Sensors ............................................................................................................ 21.16
21.15 Special Compressor Controls ......................................................................... 21.18
xii Contents
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
21.16 Temperature Control (Oil and Water) .............................................................. 21.24
21.17 Electric Motor and Pneumatically Operated Temperature Control
Valves .............................................................................................................. 21.26
21.18 Energy Management Systems ........................................................................ 21.26
21.19 Specifications, Codes, and Standards ............................................................ 21.26
22. Compressor Foundations ....................................................................... 22.1
22.1 Foundations ..................................................................................................... 22.1
22.2 References ...................................................................................................... 22.11
23. Packaging Compressors ......................................................................... 23.1
23.1 Compressor Sizing .......................................................................................... 23.1
23.2 Base Design .................................................................................................... 23.2
23.3 Scrubber Design .............................................................................................. 23.2
23.4 Line Sizing ....................................................................................................... 23.5
23.5 Pulsation Bottle Design ................................................................................... 23.7
23.6 Pressure Relief Valve Sizing ........................................................................... 23.8
23.7 Cooler Design .................................................................................................. 23.10
23.8 Compressor Lubrication .................................................................................. 23.11
23.9 Control Panel & Instrumentation ..................................................................... 23.11
23.10 Rotary Screw Gas Compressors ..................................................................... 23.15
23.11 Regulatory Compliance & Offshore Considerations ....................................... 23.17
23.12 Testing ............................................................................................................. 23.17
23.13 References ...................................................................................................... 23.17

compressors handbook 压缩机手册英文版.pdf (6.45 MB, 下载次数: 148, 售价: 5 金币)
发表于 2013-2-26 21:07:45 | 显示全部楼层
好东西,谢谢呀。
发表于 2014-12-19 10:11:57 | 显示全部楼层
应该还有一份中文翻译的,不知道楼主有没有啊?
发表于 2015-1-12 23:45:14 | 显示全部楼层
非常感谢,正在找寻
发表于 2015-7-2 15:52:17 | 显示全部楼层
好东西,,学习
发表于 2017-2-1 18:55:16 | 显示全部楼层
好东西 啊,不知怎么才能下载
发表于 2017-4-29 09:53:26 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享,挺好的
发表于 2021-7-14 07:13:42 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享资料
发表于 2022-1-25 15:58:58 | 显示全部楼层

好东西,谢谢呀。
发表于 2022-3-20 19:58:29 | 显示全部楼层
感谢群主分享资料
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